《专门替中国人写的英语语法》(四)

    本文主要介绍“一般过去时”(the past tense)和“过去进行时”(the past continuous tense)两种时态。

一、一般过去时

    一般过去时主要用于叙述过去的事,仅陈述事实;过去进行时强调某个时间点或时间段正在进行的动作。

1,一般过去时叙述过去的状态、动作或事件。(注意,这一条是最容易混淆的,也是“一般过去时”和“一般现在时”最大的不同点)

    He went to Beijing the other day.    (带具体时间

    I took an English class yesterday.    (带具体时间)

    I was a student before 2011.           (过去状态,带具体时间)

 

2,一般过去时表示过去的习惯    (第一条和第二条是“一般过去时”最常见的用法)

1)would、used to 与过去时

would表示间断性不规则的习惯,常带频率时间

used to 表示一贯性有规律的习惯

    They used to meet and would sometimes exchange one or two words.    (他们过去常碰面,有时会交谈一两个字,注意would后的sometimes)

    He smoked a lot two years ago.    (过去的习惯)

 

2)would用于句中,不用于句首,表示过去的习惯;

    used to 表示今昔对比的含义,叙述习惯动作,可以与would互换。

    When he was a boy, he would often go there.    (习惯,副词“often”)

    She isn't what she used to be.    (今昔对比)

 

3)表示状态时,一般只用used to

    Tom used to be fat.

    There used to stand a tree there.

 

4)was/were used to +ing 表示“合适于,适用于...”

    He used to work at night.    (他以前经常在晚上工作,规律)

    He was used to working at night.    (他以前习惯晚上工作,主动)

 

3,表示客气委婉的语气,用于情态动词,助词和want,wonder,hope等 (高级用法)

    How did you like the film ?

    Could you help me ?

 

二、过去进行时

1,表示在过去某阶段或某一时刻正在发生

    What were you doing at 8:30 last night ?

 

2,短暂性动词用过去进行时表示“按计划...”,“打算...”

    During that time he was going with us.   (打算)

 

3,与频率词,如often,always,usually等连用,表示喜爱,讨厌等情感。    (高级用法)

    He was always changing his mind.

三、区别

1,进行时表示某一行为的“片段”;一般时表示某一行为的“整体”和存在的状态。

    I was reading the book at that time.    (强调参考时间段的动作)

    I read the book yesterday.                  (陈述事实,强调结果或状态,“这本书我昨天读过了”)

 

2,一般持续时间状语多与进行时连用

    It was raining all night.    (优先用进行时,不过rained为持续动作,也可以用)

    He was writing a letter the whole of aternoon.    (持续时间状语,本句不可用一般过去时)

 

3,when状语从句,描述过去的多件事,主句用过去进行时,从句用一般过去时

    It was raining when he went to school yesterday.    (实际上,从句是参考点)

    He was reading newspaper when the train stopped.

    I was brushing my teetch when my father called me.

 

4,while状语从句包含短暂性动词时,只能用进行时

    He broke the chair while he was jumping up and down.

 

5,while所在主从句动作大致持续相等时,主从句一般都用进行时;两个动作持续时间一长一短,短的用一般过去时,长的用过去进行时。

    I was cooking the dinner while he was playing the piano.    (并列)

    I saw him while I was walking to the station.

注:while 和 when 刚好相反。

 

四、英语中有四类动词不用进行时(现在进行时和过去进行时)

1)表心理、情感的动词。   

    love,like,care,hate,respect,please,prefer,know等

2)表存在和状态的动词

    appear,exist,lie,remain,stand,seem等

3)表感觉的动词

    see,hear,feel,smell,sound,taste等

对应:watch,listen,share,...

4)表一时性的动词

    accept,allow,admit,decide,end,refuse,permit,promise等。

 

Exercise:

1,As she was reading newspaper, Granny fell asleep.

    短暂动作和持续动作

2,Tom slipped into the house when no one was looking.

 

3,Is Smith in America ?

    Yes,he was living in China for these years.

 

4,The method he had stuck to was proved right.

 Explaination: stick to something, stuck

 

5,Tom burnt his hand when he was cooking dinner.